Thursday, September 19, 2019
In her article Ã¢â¬Å"The Weight of What If,Ã¢â¬ Anna Quindlen writes about the tragedy of fallen soldiers. She says that we often forget how each soldier is a life unlived, and we often forget Ã¢â¬Å"what ifÃ¢â¬ they had lived. Speaking in a balanced tone, she deals with the Iraq conflict, as well as World War II and Vietnam. She forces us to ask questions about war and the effect it can have on us. Quindlen clearly wants us to think more compassionately about the veterans. Because we are so far removed from Iraq, we may think that Ã¢â¬Å"the spectacle of hometown kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ leaving home to be killed or maimed is bearible only when itÃ¢â¬â¢s given an antiseptic name.Ã¢â¬ We sometimes only see war as a lot of strategy and far-away fighting, when it is something personal that affects us all. At one point, she quotes Ernest Hemingway, who asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t we stop fighting?Ã¢â¬ This is obviously a very personal issue for Quindlen. She is passionate about what she is writing about. She brings up powerful examples of the lives never lived. When she talks about her past, it resonates with us because we can imagine her fear. Th...
Posted by s at 3:44 PM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Perceptions in Matthew Arnold's Dover Beach Matthew ArnoldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Dover beachÃ¢â¬ describe the way in which perceptions are mislead society. The use of metaphors, symbolisms, allusiveness, technical quantities, and imagery assist the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s thought regards between what is seen and what is real. Dover beach was written during Victorian era. Which brought civilization based on industry, value and money. This is the time which people start questioning the existence of God. The speaker observed the plight of Victorian era. And he sought an answer to the problems which he and world faced with. Arnold express the dejection of lost civilization, anticipate its future, and try to acquire its solution The speaker begins straightway with visual and auditory imagery when describing Ã¢â¬Å" the sea is calmÃ¢â¬ . This image implies that there is a life out there but it is smothered by darkness. And the cliff is sparkling in the moonlight. The speaker invite his companion to Ã¢â¬Å"come to the windowÃ¢â¬ (line6) to see the night air. He says this as the unending wave come in and go out back out again. His emotion bring feeling of sorrow. The speaker says even Sophocles a great Greek philosopher of the past heard his eternal sadness. The sea is coming in and going out. He thought of its like the struggles with life constant demand. The uses of metaphor when he call the faith of all people Ã¢â¬Å" the faith of the seaÃ¢â¬ (21). He says the world used to be full of faith. But now the speaker no longer believes that the world is in full of faith. He hear the wave but he only feels sorrow. So he need his lovesÃ¢â¬â¢ for reassurance that everything will be all right, that he ca n trust her completely. However the tone underneath prevent hem to believed that. The poet is comparing the world in which we live to the perfect life we want to have. Finally the speaker says with out peace, love, and joy the world contain no goodness and uncertainty. Since we have no faith in God, we must have each other with war and darkness approaching. The theme that you must have faith in someone if not in God to help deal with the difficulties our world can create. In Ã¢â¬Å"Dover BeachÃ¢â¬ , Arnold uses an exquisitely calm ocean filled with tension to present a position of appearance verses reality. Ã¢â¬Å"Dover BeachÃ¢â¬ is about a beautifully calm sea, although when looking underneath the surface, it is a world full of hidden turbu... ...man did not, as the churches claimed, have a privileged place if earthly creation, as the image of God, but was merely part of an age-old biological process of the survival of the fittest. Rather than being a little lower than the angels, man was somewhat more developed than the ape. The theory was devastating and destroyed the Christian vocations of many. Perhaps the best way for the modern reader to gain some sense of the impact of this experience is to go to the poetry that grew out of the loss of religious belief ArnoldÃ¢â¬â¢s plead is also his solution to a world of confusion and chaos. he believes, or optimistically wishes he could believe, that he can take refuge in an internal peace between him and his lover. By saying this, Arnold must believe there is no hope for civilization, and no solution to its problems. On a darkened plain the people cannot truly see what is going on, which draws back to ArnoldÃ¢â¬â¢s idea that people of the Victorian Age acted without reflection. The darkness is caused by a chaotic world where truth is blind to those who look on it, and the people who look upon the world do not reflect on what they see. Thus, the darkness is attributed to confusion
Posted by s at 5:04 PM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN EGYPT PRIVATE SECTOR: Ready for action As Egypt is known for itÃ¢â¬â¢s mixed economic system ,Compared with other emerging markets, Egypt's private sector is tiny. The public sector still accounts for almost 70 per cent of GDP despite the fact that hundreds of public enterprises have been wholly or partly privatised during the past four years. Judging, however, by the rapid growth of some of the country's largest family-owned businesses, this is unlikely to hold true five years from now. Raouf Ghabbour, chairman of Ghabbour Group, a family business and the country's largest assembler and distributor of motor vehicles, says there are hundreds of medium-sized companies which are growing fast enough to qualify for joint-stock status within three or four years. Ghabbour Group is one of only a dozen or so unlisted private sector companies with a turnover of more than EÃ £1bn. This is considered a minimum threshold for a company to launch a successful public listing. "Our turnover has been growing at about 25 per cent a year this decade," says Mr Ghabbour. "There are countless small and medium-sized companies with this kind of growth rate." Much like Orascom, Egypt's largest family-owned group, which has interests ranging from tourism to telecoms separated into several publicly listed companies, Ghabbour has been converted to the benefits of going public. The car assembler, which also has a growing consumer loan subsidiary, hopes to offer 10 to 15 per cent of its equity in an initial public offering later this year. Others, including IGI, a diversified family-owned group with interests in manufacturing, dairy farming and petroleum, are thinking along similar lines. "There are probably about 10 or 12 family companies with similar plans," says Khaled Sheta, chief executive of International Group for Investment. "All of them will be quoted in a year or two from now." Mr Sheta provides justification for such a move. "Opening your books to the public acts as a good business discipline on managers and enables you to value your assets more accurately," he says. It is also, of course, a handy way of raising capital without having to cede majority control of the company. Indeed, for the few that have achieved genuine nation-wide market share in their industries, there is little choice but to go public or offer stakes to strategic investors if they want to continue expanding. Being so small in number, companies such as Ghabbour and Mansour, which has the Coca-Cola and McDonald's franchise in Egypt, are inevitably bumping up against credit limits to their banks.
Posted by s at 6:24 PM
Monday, September 16, 2019
His home in England was near the main gathering point for the D-Day invasion. Along with his fathers service in World War I, Keegan felt himself drawn towards the military and its workings. Unfortunately Keegan was unable to serve in the British Military due to a childhood illness. Although Keegan was unable to serve his country, he was determined to find his way into some aspect of the military. With a degree at Oxford, Keegan became a military historian. This essay will take a look into Keegans work, A History of Warfare, and his thesis that war is not a continuation of politics. This essay will refute his thesis with evidence from Clausewitz, fallacies in Keegans novel and military conflicts over the past thirty years. Keegan has dissected the workings of the military and the military soldier. In his novel A History of Warfare, Keegan disputes the Clausewitzen theory that war is the continuation of policy by other means. Keegan supports his theory by giving explanations of how Clausewitzens theory is invalid. To understand Keegans position one must first be familiar with Clausewitz. Clausewitz was a Prussian regimental officer during the Napoleonic wars. Upon retirement, he wrote the book On War. The books main thesis was war is the continuation by policy by other means. Keegan disagrees with Clausewitz by saying: Such at statement implies the existence of states, of state interests and of rational calculation about how they may be achieved. Yet war antedates the state, diplomacy and strategy by many millennia. Clausewitz, a child of Aristotle, went no further than to say that a political animal is war making animal. Neither dared confront the thought that man is a thinking animal in whom the intellect directs the urge to hunt and the ability to kill. Keegan suggests that war precedes states by many millenniums. First, Clausewitzs thesis does not imply there must be existence of states. Perhaps the political entity of the state did not exist but tribal life did. The tribe is a political entity. The bible has many accounts of tribal warfare for political gain. It varies from Moses leaving Egypt to David defeating Goliath. Keegan also states that war precedes diplomacy and strategy as well. The bible also recounts many strategies and diplomacy between tribes and states. Some historians might object to the bible being a reliable source but no one can refute that what happened in the bible was not true or accurate. We are cultural animals and it is the richness of our culture which allows us to accept our undoubted potentiality for violence but to believe nevertheless that its expression is a cultural aberration. History lessons remind us that the states in which we live, their institutions, even their laws, have come to us through conflict, often of the most bloodthirsty sort. Keegan is referring to the statement made by Aristotle in which he said, Man is a political animal. Keegan said that Clausewitz is a child of Aristotle and he believes that a political animal is a war-making animal. Keegan refutes them by saying, Neither dared confront the thought that man is a thinking animal in whom the intellect directs the urge to hunt and the ability to kill. How can he say that he disagrees with Clausewitzs theory when he himself claims that the states we live in now have come to be by conflict Doesnt that support Clausewitzs theory The point about neither Aristotle nor Clausewitz confront the fact that man is a thinking animal is a bit confusing. Yes man is a thinking animal and throughout history there has been countless rulers, dictators and emperors who have used war to gain political control. A prime example would be the conflict between Julius Caesar and Pompey. While Caesar was in Gaul waging war, he used agents to dominate politics in Rome. Caesar used politics and military strength to seize control of Rome and become the emperor. Man is a thinking animal and those in power, especially in the early years of history, were continually thinking on how to get more. Keegans big fallacy is his statement; Politics played no part in the conduct of the First World War worth mentioning. He goes on to say; The Germans, French, British and Russians found themselves apparently fighting war for wars sake. The wars political objects, difficult enough to define in the first place, were forgotten. Political restraints were overwhelmed, politicians who appealed to reason were execrated, and politics even in the liberal democracies was rapidly reduced to a mere justification of bigger battles, longer casualty lists, costlier budgets and overflowing human misery. The Encarta Encyclopedia states the following; The underlying causes of World War I were the spirit of intense nationalism that permeated Europe throughout the 19th and into the 20th century, the political and economic rivalry among the nations, and the establishment and maintenance in Europe after 1871 of large armaments and of two hostile military alliances. The fundamental causes of he conflict were rooted deeply in the European history of the previous century, particularly in the political and economic policies that prevailed on the Continent after 1871, the year that marked the emergence of Germany as a great world power. Keegan fails to give one argument supporting his statement. How he can say that politics played no role worth mentioning is beyond me. He not only gives no arguments but goes on to say, we are nevertheless right to see Clausewitz as the ideological father of the First World War, just as we are right to perceive Marx as the ideological father of the Russian Revolution. The appalling fate that those armies brought upon themselves by their dedication to it may be Clausewitzs enduring legacy. To compare Clausewitz and Marx is stretching it a bit. To blame Clausewitz for World War I is ludicrous. Once again Keegan fails to support his theory. Keegan goes on to say that Clausewitz is the ideological father of World War I. One can concur that if Keegan states Clausewitzs is to blame for World War I then wouldnt he be supporting Clausewitzs theory If war is the continuation of politics and Clausewitz is to blame, then isnt it correct to say that war is the continuation of politics Keegan he was not the only one who had this theory. Radical military writers such as the British historian B. H. Liddell Hart had such theories as well. He accuses him of urging the largest possible offensive with the largest possible numbers as the key to victory. Later Liddells thoughts were dismissed. Keegan, adhering to Liddells theory, once again has himself in a no win situation. He has stated that man is a thinking animal so shouldnt man be intelligent enough to figure out war and conflict without going to the past Shouldnt a general wage his own war, not an officer who wrote a book in the past Keegan concludes his theory with these thoughts; Culture is a prime determinant of the nature of warfare, as the history of its development. Politics must continue; war cannot. That is not to say that the role of the warrior is over. The world community needs, more than it has ever needed, skilful and disciplined warriors who are ready to put themselves at the service of its authority. Such warriors must properly be seen as the protectors of civilization, not its enemies. There is an even greater wisdom in the denial that politics and war belong with the same continuum. Unless we insist on denying it, our future, may belong to the men with bloodied hands. It is great to say that politics must continue but war cannot, but is it realistic For centuries war and politics have gone hand and hand. What events or individuals have given us a hope for change Are recent conflicts a testament to the future The United States involment in Bosnia, Somalia and the Gulf War has proven that. Would Keegan say that politics were not involved in those conflicts Keegan fails to address a few major conflicts in history. The Vietnam War and Korean War are not mentioned at all. The current theory underlying Vietnam and Korea were political reasons for the conflict. It is true that we went to Korea to support the South Koreans who were invaded but why were they invaded Political reasons are why. We were politically obligated to support the South Koreans. Chinas involment was purely political. The United States was not going to invade China. To the Chinese, having communist North Korea on their border was better than having the United States. Saying that Vietnam was not a political conflict does not give a reasonable explanation. The Vietnam War was the United States supporting a helpless South Vietnam and the United States fighting to keep their influence in South East Asia. With Keegans failure to address these major conflicts he leaves the reader wondering why. There are some errors of interpretation and fact in his novel as well. The atomic bomb was not designed to end wars without commitment of manpower on the battlefield as the author contends. The atomic bomb was another weapon, which we potentiality we only discovered after its use. Not until a decade later did nuclear weaponry come to take its place among equals in military establishments, at least in the United States. Keegans main goal was to refute the Clausewitz theory of war and politics. Keegan failed in this task. His inability to discuss such politically orientated conflicts such as Vietnam and Korea aids in his failure. His contention that World War I was not political was refuted by a definition in an encyclopedia. Keegan tries to offer the reader a new concept in studying military history but he is unable to get the reader to follow his train of thought.
Posted by s at 8:42 PM
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Globalization is actually the process of economic, technological, political and socio-cultural forces i.e. globalization refers to the adaptation or development of values, knowledge, technology and behavioral norms across different societies and countries around the world.The characteristics of globalization are mostly linked with global networking (i.e. internet, electronic communication or technology and many more) with interflow of information in the economic, social, political and cultural learning areas, interflow between international alliances and competitors, international collaboration and multi-cultural integration and global village and technology.Globalization amplifies the cultural diversity of an organization and the company needs to be aware of the culture diversity within the organization so that they can guide the managers when they take decisions. Managers need to further their contributions to the organization by being informed about cultural differences among the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s international operations.The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s role is not to object to or block technology transfers or other innovations to facilitate them. The growing globalization of business also means grater movement of employees among countries. (Edwards, 2006)Global ExpansionCompanies large and small believe in global expansion and the companies find that thinking globally can provide them with a competitive edge over their competitors. International markets provide many opportunities for companies to expand themselves. Large companies are the ones who carry out international business .Companies who are global or in the global or stateless stage of international development transcend any single home country. The companies operate in a global fashion, making sales and acquiring resources in countries where the cost is the minimum and where a lot of business opportunities are there.At this stage, companies have their offices located at different locations around the world wit h total control and ownership. The companies that operation internationally encourages free flow of ideas, products, manufacturing and marketing among countries so that they can achieve great efficiencies. (Daft, 1997)Ways to ExpansionThere are different methods of global expansion for any large company. All companies have a couple of ways in which they can expand their business globally. One if the ways a large company can expand itself it through seeking out cheaper sources for supplies and looking for cheaper suppliers who would supply the company offshore, this process is called the outsourcing method.Another method for a company to expand globally would be by developing markets for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s finished products outside the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s home country, this may include licensing, direct investment or even through exporting etc.This kind of method is called the market entry strategy where the company introduces itself and its products for selling in a foreign market. W hat happens is that the most companies start with exporting and they work up to direct investing in the foreign market. The different ways for a company to expand itself globally are as follows:-OutsourcingOutsourcing here is being referred to as global sourcing or outsourcing, basically means engaging in the international division of labor so that the production of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products can be done in the cheapest sources and supplies available to the company.For example, the company may take away a contract from a domestic supplier because the supplier was providing the company with expensive materials and can replace it with a supplier in Far East because that supplier is providing with the cheapest material for the production of the products. Outsourcing is mostly conducted by the company so that it can increase its profits. (Fullmer, 1983)ExportingWith the help of exporting the company can maintain its production facilities within the home nation and then transfers the product for sale in the foreign market. Exporting basically helps the country to market its product in other countries at modest resource cost and with very minimum risk for the company and the country.There are some large companies that usually do not want to be involved in any kind of investment in the foreign market, therefore for such companies who want to expand globally usually export their product to the foreign markets like Gerber Scientific Inc. (high-tech equipment supplier).LicensingWith the help of licensing a company in one country makes certain sources available to companies in another country. These resources include technology, managerial skills, patents or even trademark rights. Franchising is a form of licensing in which the franchisor provides foreign franchises with a complete package of material and services, which include equipment, products, product ingredients, trade mark and trade name rights, managerial advice and a standardized operating.Some of the best k nown international franchisors are the fast foods chains and coffee shops like Starbucks, Costa Coffee, Burger King, DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts, KFC, Pizza Hut or McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Licensing and franchising offer a business company relatively an easy access to international markets at low costs, but the limit its participation in and control over the development of those markets. (Fullmer, 1983)Direct InvestmentDirect investment can be described as a higher involvement of the company in an international trade. Direct investment means when the company is involved in managing the productive assets, which distinguishes it from the other entry strategies which stops less management control.Joint venture is a also a part of direct investment which can be defined as a variation of direct investment in which the company would share costs and risks with another firm to build a manufacturing facility, or to develop new products or even to set up a sales and distribution network. (Fullmer, 1983)C onclusionThis paper basically stresses on the growing importance of an international or global perspective of the company that how it can expand itself.Large companies that have been a huge success in their home countries have begun to expand their business overseas and are preparing themselves even now to withstand domestic competition from the foreign markets competitors. Business in the global arena involves risks and difficulties that have to be faced by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management.ReferencesDaft, R.L. (1997) Ã¢â¬Å"ManagementÃ¢â¬ . Orlando: The Dryden PressDavid Roman (2008), Going Global, Available from , on 5th DecemberÃ¢â¬â¢08Edwards, W. (2006), Ã¢â¬ËWhy go global? Compelling reasons to expand internationallyÃ¢â¬â¢, Available from < http://www.allbusiness.com/retail-trade/4017371-1.html>, on 5th DecemberÃ¢â¬â¢08Fullmer, R.M. (1983) Ã¢â¬Å"The New ManagementÃ¢â¬ New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
Posted by s at 11:00 PM
Classroom assessment ranks among a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s most essential educational tools.Ã Well-constructed teacher-made tests can: Ã¢â¬ ¢ provide teachers with the means to gather evidence about what their students know and can do Ã¢â¬ ¢ help instructors identify studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths and weaknesses Ã¢â¬ ¢ keep tabs on student learning and progress Ã¢â¬ ¢ help teachers plan and conduct future instruction Ã¢â¬ ¢ motivate and shape learning and instruction Ã¢â¬ ¢ guide students toward improving their own performances Ã¢â¬ ¢ gauge whether students are mastering district, state, and national education standards Ã¢â¬ ¢ determine if students are prepared for the high-stakes state or district tests By unlocking the power of effective classroom assessment, teachers can accomplish all of the above and more.In the era of accountability and highstakes decision making, teacher-made tests can no longer be viewed as simply a means to gather grades for the end of the marking period repo rt cards. process, providing the evidence teachers need to determine whether or not their students have achieved the educational goals set out for them. Capturing the Evidence Classroom assessments can be thought of as evidence capturing devices or tools. The evidence the teacher seeks to gather is used to show or prove the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge and ability. Just like a good detective, the classroom teacher must consider several things in selecting the tools used to gather the evidence: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What do I think my students should know?What are my expectations for their knowledge base? This could be based on lesson goals and objectives, curriculum or course content goals, district or state standards, etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ How would I describe my students after they experience these teaching episodes; how would I capture this description? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Of all the things IÃ¢â¬â¢ve taught, what are the most important concepts and what should be assessed? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the best tool for capturi ng this evidence? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How will I use this evidence in the future? Is it simply to Ã¢â¬Å"keep scoreÃ¢â¬ or will it cause me to reflect on my teaching and my future planning? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How will I report this evidence and to whom? Formative vs. Summative AssessmentIn general, all tests can fall under one of two major subheadings: formative assessments or summative assessments. Formative assessments are those tools teachers use to monitor student performance on an ongoing basis. These can range from something as simple as the daily judgments teachers make about a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s oral response to questions that arise in classroom discussions to more formal paper and pencil tests. Summative assessments, on the other hand, gather evidence about cumulative student learning at the end of an activity, unit, marking period or school year. These types of assessments would include, among others, the final exam or the chapter test.Whether they use formative or summative methods, effective teachers constantly monitor and revise instructional plans based on their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ educational progress and needs. Assessment, whether formal or informal, plays a vital part in this ongoing page 1 Elements of an Effective Teacher-Made Test In reflecting on these questions, teachers begin to realize the power of classroom assessment, and that this tool can be as important in the teaching and learning process as class discussions, small group activities, or any other teaching strategy. To unleash this power, and to ensure that classroom instructional time devoted to the assessment is used wisely, teachers must carefully plan and design the test.A poorly chosen or designed assessment will fail to provide the evidence of student learning, or worse, will provide misleading information. It is imperative that the teacher employs a systematic process for developing and using the assessment tool. That process should begin with the instructor asking a few basic but essential questions : Ã¢â¬ ¢ What am I trying to find out about my studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning? (That is, what student/standards/goals/ outcomes am I measuring? ) Log On. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Talk. www. ets. org/letstalk Ã¢â¬ ¢ What kind of evidence do I need to show that my students have achieved the goals that IÃ¢â¬â¢m trying to measure? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What kind of assessment will give me that evidence?To respond to these questions, the teacher must consider these elements of the test design process: Ã¢â¬ ¢ appropriateness Ã¢â¬ ¢ relevancy Ã¢â¬ ¢ expectations for learning Ã¢â¬ ¢ multiple evidence Ã¢â¬ ¢ planning Ã¢â¬ ¢ fairness Ã¢â¬ ¢ assessing the assessment Is it Relevant? An assessment task should make sense in terms of the assessment situation as well as the type of knowledge or skill thatÃ¢â¬â¢s being assessed. It should also provide relevant information based on what students should have learned in class. For example, it would be inappropriate to ask ninth-grade, French-class students to carry on a conversation in French about the income tax system, if it has nothing to do with what they had learned in French class, and since it probably has no relevance in their lives. But asking them to carry on a discussion in French about a class trip would be very appropriate.Ideally, an assessment should also reflect real-world applications of knowledge and understanding. Although developing such assessments is not always practical, assessments based on situations relevant to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ own world experiences can motivate them to put forth their best performances. If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why they may need to know something, they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be as likely to do so. Is it Appropriate? If you were to visit your doctor and he or she used a thermometer to determine your blood pressure you might have cause for concern. Like the classroom test, the medical thermometer is an evidence-gathering device (to determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body temperature).Both the physician and the classroom teacher must select the best device based upon the type of evidence it was meant to provide, and not one that provides evidence of something else. What would happen if a teacher decides to use word problems, rather than number problems, to determine whether third-graders know their multiplication facts? One outcome that we might imagine is that the teacher could not be certain if the test was measuring math ability or reading skill. Having to read and understand the questions could get in the way of a student being able to demonstrate that he or she can, for instance, multiply 8 x 6 and come up with 48. Of course, if the teacher wants to know whether students can apply their multiplication skills to realistic situations, the word problem task would be appropriate and fair.At the same time, the assessment must measure the knowledge, skills, and/or abilities the teacher feels are important and do this in an appropriate way. If the goal is to test for retention of facts, then a cut-and -dried factual test (e. g. , multiple-choice or fillin-the-blank) may be the best assessment choice. On the other hand, measuring studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ conceptual understanding, ability to analyze data, ability to perform tasks, or their collaborative skills would probably require more complex forms of assessment. What are the Expectations for Learning?Before administering an assessment designed to measure what students have learned in class, teachers need to ask themselves: Ã¢â¬Å"Based on what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve taught in class, can my students be expected to answer this? If correctly completing the assessment requires knowledge or skills that have not been emphasized in class, or that the students are unlikely to have mastered, the assessment will not provide an accurate or fair evaluation of whether the students have learned the material. Of course, if the goal is to find out what students already know or understand before a unit of instruction, then a well-thought-out assessment can provid e useful information for planning future lessons. Of course, informing future lesson planning should be one of the key uses of any assessment. One Test or Multiple Sources of Evidence? While a single clue at a crime scene might allow a detective to make some assumptions, the judge and jury will probably need a lot more evidence before making a decision about guilt or innocence.As a result, experienced and competent investigators will employ many tools to gather multiple types of evidence from sources such as fingerprints, DNA samples, other physical clues, as well as actual interviews of witnesses and suspects. Similarly, teachers page 2 Log On. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Talk. www. ets. org/letstalk should rely on all sorts of options available to help them gather evidence of their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. These range from the informal, day-to-day ways teachers size up their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress, such as observation and questioning strategies, to traditional paper-and-pencil tests (multip le-choice and shortanswer ones, for example), to more elaborate forms of assessment, such as essays or problem solving activities.Just as a detective must gather many sources of evidence to build a convincing case, so must a teacher use many sources of evidence to accurately interpret what each student really knows and can do. Limiting themselves to using only one or two assessment methods, no matter how reliable or valuable, limits teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to fully understand the range of their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge and skills. Conversely, providing students with different kinds of opportunities to show what they know gives teachers a broader, better understanding of each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s talents and abilities. The questions should challenge students to do more than memorize and recall facts. Focus on assessing the most important and meaningful information, rather than small, irrelevant facts.For example, rather than asking, Ã¢â¬Å"How many vitamins are essential for humans? A . 7 B. 13 C. 15 D. 23,Ã¢â¬ consider asking Ã¢â¬Å"Name at least seven vitamins that are essential for humans and explain why they are essential. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Never use questions or inconsequential details just to trick students. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Create a test blueprint that will clearly describe the important content areas to be tested, the number and type of items that will get at each content area, the scoring value for the items, the length of time for the test administration, and other critical test components. Is it Fair? To be valid, classroom assessments need to be fair.In assessment terms, that means all students must be given an equal chance to show what they know and can do. An assessment is not fair if it: Ã¢â¬ ¢ measures things unrelated to its objectives is biased Tests should be designed so that they are focused on the instruction that preceded the assessment, and that ensure that testing, teaching and curriculum are all tightly aligned. Ã¢â¬Å"BiasÃ¢â¬ is said to exi st if the assessment includes content that offends or unfairly penalizes test takers because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, religion, or sexual orientation. Assessment bias affects validity because it may negatively influence studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes toward, and performance on, the assessment.For example, an assessment that includes language or content that offends a specific group of students may hurt the performance of those students by causing them to focus more on the offensive language than on performing at their best. Test takers may also be disadvantaged if the assessment includes content that, although not offensive, assumes prior knowledge likely to be unfamiliar to one particular group of test takers but familiar to another. An obvious example is the need to know something that can only be gained by visiting an art museum, if some groups of students have no personal experience of ever visiting a museum with family or friends . Planning the Assessments Teachers should use the following guidelines when planning any assessment:Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have the purpose of the test clearly in mind. Determine what type of assessment will be most appropriate for the situation, based on the nature of what you are teaching, the purpose of the instruction, and what you want to find out. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If the purpose of the assessment is to determine how well students have mastered a particular unit of study, make sure the test parallels the work covered in class. And, to be able to discriminate among levels of learning, avoid making the assessment overly difficult or easy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If the assessment is a selected-response or fill-in-the-blank test that will be used to diagnose basic skills, it should contain at least 10 questions Ã¢â¬â preferably more Ã¢â¬â for each skill area.The questions pertaining to each skill area should be considered a subtest, and these subtests should yield separate scores on the various elements needed fo r mastery of the skill. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If the major purpose of the test is to rank a selected group of students in order of their achievement, the questions should cover critical points of learning. Questions on critical points often require understanding implications, applying information, and reorganizing data. page 3 Log On. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Talk. www. ets. org/letstalk Tests should be designed to afford students multiple opportunities to tell what they know about a particular subject, not to present them with difficult, if not impossible, tasks.One way to let students shine is to include a bonus question at the end of the test that asks something like, Ã¢â¬Å"Take this opportunity to tell me something about this topic that was not included on the test. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Other things to consider when poor results are obtained are external, test administration issues [e. g. , uncomfortable room temperature, administration right after a long weekend, external noise distractions, unsettling scho ol or community news]. One of the most effective ways to improve a classroom assessment is to review it before administering it. If possible, wait at least one day after the assessment was written before performing the review. Then ask a colleague to review the assessment.As part of this review process, have someone who did not write the task (a colleague or even a family member) solve the task. Assess the Assessment In assessment, wording is critical. Unclear directions can confuse test takers and negatively affect their responses, which can lead to inaccurate, and therefore useless, information about what the students actually know and can do. Wording in multiple-choice type items is especially important. Being precise in the question and in the options or choices prevents misunderstanding and provides more reliable evidence of what students know. After an assessment has been administered, teachers can ask students how they interpreted the questions, particularly if the questions elicited unexpected results.When assessments give unexpected results Ã¢â¬â for example, the entire class bombs an assessment, or the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses are not consistent with the type of work the teacher was looking for Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to take a good hard look at both the assessment and the way it was administered to determine whether it was flawed in some way. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Did students who are more able, based on other evidence, do well on the assessment? If not, something might be wrong with it. You might consider analyzing the questions or tasks to make sure each is accurate, valid, fair, and reliable. On the other hand, if the assessment presents a type of task that your students might not be familiar with (e. g. a complex, nonroutine type of problem), students who performed poorly may simply have had difficulty with that particular type of assessment.Ã¢â¬ ¢ Did students answer the assessment appropriately but not give the answers you were looking for? The n check to see if the task was well-defined and clearly written. Students canÃ¢â¬â¢t be expected to give adequate responses if they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what kind of response is expected of them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If the entire class failed the test, it might indicate that the material wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t taught adequately, or the assessment was so poorly written that the students were unable to apply their knowledge appropriately. During the review, check to see that: directions are clear Ã¢â¬ ¢ content is accurate Ã¢â¬ ¢ questions or tasks are representative of the topics or skills emphasized during instruction; knowledge or skills that were not covered in class are not being unintentionally evaluatedÃ¢â¬ ¢ the type of assessment used is compatible with the method of instruction used in the classroom and the standard being measured Ã¢â¬ ¢ the assessment will contribute to the instructorÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of what the students know and can do Ã¢â¬ ¢ the assessment can be completed in the allotted time Ã¢â¬ ¢ the assessment is fair; all instances of offensive language, elitism, and bias have been eliminated When teachers begin to analyze assessment results, they should look for two things: 1. Does the question or task provide accurate information?Did all the students do poorly on the same question or set of questions? Maybe certain questions are confusing or misleading, or perhaps the concept is simply not yet well understood by the students and should be retaught. Having students explain why they answered a question in a certain way can be very enlightening to the teacher about whether the problem is in the question (or task), or in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the concept being assessed. Log On. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Talk. www. ets. org/letstalk page 4 2. Each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknesses: are they based on his or her patterns or performance? This information can help teachers tailor the next round of instruction to either remedy problems or build on stre ngth.For example, if a particular group of students has difficulty with one set of items that measures a similar set of skills, these students might need extra instruction or a different kind of instruction. Or, if everybody in the class had difficulty with a particular issue that the teacher thought was emphasized in class, then the teacher needs to determine if there was a problem with the instruction and/or material. By taking the time to create fair, focused, and well-thought-out assessments, teachers can have confidence in the evidence gathered and make meaningful judgments about student performance and future instructional plans and decisions. This article was based on the ETS Focus publication Letting Students Shine: Assessment to Promote Student Learning. Written by Amada McBride, 1999.
Posted by s at 1:18 AM
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Life before September 1928 proved to be a difficult time for many. The quality of life across the world was poor, and humans had a considerably shorter lifespan than today. Bacterial infections ranked as a leading cause of death. These infections spread easily, and diseases such as pneumonia, syphilis, gonorrhea, diphtheria, and scarlet fever as well as wounds and childbirth infections killed thousands every year. Surgical infections were also a major killer, and doctors had no protection from any of these infections. The discovery of the first antibiotic, penicillin, in 1928 changed the lives of people forever. Penicillin provided a cure for many deadly infections, and its discovery led to the discovery of many other antibiotics, such as streptomycin, which are used to treat everyday infections for countless ailments, saving and improving lives throughout the world. Before the discovery of penicillin, medicine was not very reliable for curing diseases or infections. Many people in t he late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s- 1920s were dying from the common cold (Tames 12). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention states,Ã¢â¬Å"Diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), and diarrhea and enteritis, which (together with diphtheria) caused one third of all deaths in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s to early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ . 1918 proved to be an especially devastating time with 20 million lives lost due to a wide spread of influenza that no known medication could cure. During this time vaccinations were the most helpful medication but even with their help, thousands still died from many diseases and infection (CDC). The discovery of penicillin is described as being miraculous. Penicillin is responsible for curing thousands of diseases and infections since the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. It saves hundreds of thousands of lives that would otherwise be lost due to these infections. Treating everything from cuts and scrapes to major diseases such as syphilis, penicillin is used for just about everything in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world (Wong). Wong stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Without the discovery of this antibiotic thousands of people would still be dying from the same diseases that killed hundreds of years agoÃ¢â¬ . Despite the success of the drug, penicillin, discovered by Dr. Alexander Fleming, was an accidental finding. Fogel commented in his article, Ã¢â¬Å"Fleming was known as being an unorganized and messy scientistÃ¢â¬ . He was researching a culture of staphylococcus aureus , a pathogenic bacteria,Ã and left for a two week vacation. When he returned he observed that the specimen was contaminated by a species of penicillium and the penicillium prohibited the growth of the staphylococcus aureus (Wong). Fleming decided to further his research and discovered that this mold was capable of killing a wide range of harmful bacteria. He published his findings in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology, where other scientists observed them and decided to turn penicillin into something more than just a laboratory finding (Ã¢â¬Å"Discovery and Development of PenicillinÃ¢â¬ ). In the early days of penicillin production, only small amounts of the drug were produced, which caused major issues for doctors and surgeons testing the antibiotic. Once penicillin was developed enough for testing, it became high in demand. Producers of the drug could only fermentate small amounts at a time, growing the penicillium bacteria in bedpans, milk churns, and food tins (Ã¢â¬Å"Discovery and Development of PenicillinÃ¢â¬ ). Endocrine Today states, Ã¢â¬Å"It took seven months to grow enough of the bacteria to cure 6 patientsÃ¢â¬ . This caused many issues for doctors and surgeons testing the drug, since they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t complete their trials with the limited resource. Many patients who received penicillin died from relapse of diseases since doctors did not have the amount of the drug needed to completely eradicate the disease. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the late 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s that increased production of the drug occurred with the development of customized fermentation tanks that would allow 500 liters of penicillin to be produced per week (Ã¢â¬Å"Penicillin: An Accidental Discovery Changed the Course of MedicineÃ¢â¬ ). Although penicillin was limited in resource, tests on the new drug proved to be successful. Performing the first test with penicillin were Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, who injected 50 mice first with harmful Streptococci then with penicillin. The test proved to be successful in eradicating the disease from the mice. According to Tames, Ã¢â¬Å"The first human test of penicillin was Albert Alexander, a 43 year old police officer that suffered a small cut from a rose thorn that turned into a life-threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting his eyes, face, and lungsÃ¢â¬ (24). Alexander was injected with penicillin and within days he made a miraculous recovery. Unfortunately, the limited amount of penicillin ran out, and he died three days later. Another test was performed on a four year old boy with a fatalÃ infection, and he was cured completely. Scientists who worked for major pharmaceutical companies wanted to purify the drug even more for widespread use all over the wo rld (Ã¢â¬Å"Discovery and Development of PenicillinÃ¢â¬ ). Accordingly, penicillinÃ¢â¬â¢s use in World War II decreased the amount of soldier deaths that were the result of diseases and infections. In World War I, 200,000 soldiers died from disease and infection. The Center for Disease Control states, Ã¢â¬Å"The most common diseases for both world wars were pneumonia ,strep throat, scarlet fever, diphtheria, syphilis, gonorrhea, meningitis, tonsillitis,and rheumatic feverÃ¢â¬ . With the help of penicillin, in World War II the number of soldier casualties dropped significantly to around 9000. Death rate from pneumonia was 18% in WWI; and in WWII it was less than 1% (Ã¢â¬Å"Penicillin the Wonder DrugÃ¢â¬ ). In addition to its benefits in World War II, penicillin also dropped the death rate from amputation. Amputations were extremely risky in the late 1800s to early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s because of the inadequacy of medication and sanitation in hospitals. Thousands of soldiers came home from the war needing amputations from sustained injuries. Tames states, Ã¢â¬Å"Before the induction of penicillin 75% of amputations resulted in deathÃ¢â¬ (45). PenicillinÃ¢â¬â¢s use in these procedures reduced that number to 30% (68). Antibiotics made it safe to operate on limbs without the fear of infection for thousands of people. Furthermore, the discovery of penicillin paved the way to the discovery of other antibiotics. Penicillins success inspired many scientists and pharmacists to research other products that could be helpful in medicine. Many scientists tested bacterias and natural fruits for harmful bacteria fighting properties (Ã¢â¬Å"The fungus that changed historyÃ¢â¬ ). Endocrine Today states, Ã¢â¬Å"A number of pharmaceutical industries began to screen other natural products for antibacterial activity, which led to new antibiotics such as aminoglycosides and tetracyclineÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Penicillin: An Accidental Discovery Changed the Course of HistoryÃ¢â¬ ). These new antibiotics, just like penicillin, were successful in the treatment and eradication of many infections and diseases. As a result from the discovery of new antibiotics along with penicillin, many diseases and infections that killed thousands finally had a cure. Krebs states in his article, Ã¢â¬Å"Before penicillin,Ã tuberculosis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, syphilis, anthrax, strep, and staph often resulted in deathÃ¢â¬ . Doctors and surgeons didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the medication to cure many of the diseases that were major killers at the time. With the discovery and induction of penicillin, most if not all those diseases and infections are now curable (Ã¢â¬Å"The Fungus that Changed H istoryÃ¢â¬ ). Today, less than 10% of the worlds population die from the same diseases that killed in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s-early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s (Wong). Subsequently, penicillin is still as popular as it was in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, despite the growing number of allergies and antibiotic resistance against it. The overuse and misuse of penicillin has caused many to develop antibacterial resistance against the drug. Allergies caused by penicillin are the most common of all drug allergies. Some scientists claim that penicillin allergies are caused by a personÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system genetic makeup that is designed to fight all bacteria. Despite this, Ã¢â¬Å"Penicillin is the most widely used antibiotic in the worldÃ¢â¬ , and it continues to be effective in curing deadly diseases (Ã¢â¬Å"Penicillin: An Accidental Discovery Changed the Course of MedicineÃ¢â¬ ). Penicillin has changed the world in an extremely positive way. It has provided the means for treating and curing deadly diseases and infections, as well as lead to the discovery of other disease killing antibiotics. Millions of lives have been saved and improved a result of this discovery. Without the Ã¢â¬Å"mistakeÃ¢â¬ Alexander Fleming supposedly made the world would still be one with meager medical treatments; and thousands would still be dying from the fatal diseases that took so many lives in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Penicillin has truly fabricated the world of medicine into what it is today.
Posted by s at 3:36 AM